Glucose Curve The glucose curve is a useful tool for distinguishing between the Somogyi effect and an inadequate insulin dosage. It aids in determining the optimal range of glycemia for cats, which should be between 120-300 mg/dL (5.6-16.7 mmol/L), during the majority of the day.
Feline Glucose Curve Management
The blood glucose curve is the best tool for figuring out how well insulin works and how often and at what dosage it should be administered. The bulk of the day should be spent keeping a diabetic cat’s blood glucose levels between 120 and 300 mg/dL to reduce symptoms and problems.
The insulin dosage is often changed by veterinarians based on a blood glucose curve. Remember that stress may impact the accuracy of data while constructing a glucose curve and that the glucose curve is only one tool among several that can be used to identify and track diabetes mellitus. When deciding whether to alter your pet’s insulin medication, your veterinarian will consider any clinical signs—or lack thereof. The ultimate objective of managing a diabetic cat is to appropriately treat the clinical indications so that your pet may live a healthy life.
Ways to Finish a Glucose Curve
Feed and provide Vetsulin® (porcine insulin zinc suspension) to the cat as you would at home. The owner can do this, and the veterinarian can confirm it. The same exercise program that the cat follows at home during the day should be continued while the animal is receiving medical attention.
just before administering insulin (or immediately upon arrival, if injection occurs prior to clinic opening).
Then, spaced out by at least 60 to 120 minutes.
If the product is given every 12 hours during the course of 12 hours.
It takes time and patience to become skilled at getting a house BGC, therefore not all owners are fit for it. The most common issues that pet owners run into include the necessity for many punctures to collect a blood drop, getting enough blood, needing help restraining a pet, and the pet’s aversion to provide a sample of blood. 39 Curves should always be evaluated in light of clinical indications since they might change from day to day, especially when performed at home. 40 For more comprehensive information and resources for pet owners on at-home monitoring using BGCs, practice team members may consult the Online Resource Center.
Glucose curve interpretation
Blood glucose curves (BGC) are an essential monitoring tool, although they are not without drawbacks. When it comes to monitoring diabetic mellitus (DM), clinical indications take precedence over anything else. When the patient exhibits no clinical symptoms and their body weight is stable or rising, their DM is probably under control.
There are three fundamental questions that need to be answered while evaluating a BGC, regardless of whether it was the patient’s first curve or one of several.
Describe the nadir.
Has the insulin been successful in bringing blood glucose (BG) down to the desired nadir of 80-150 mg/dL?
How long did insulin take to start working?
How long has the blood glucose been kept under control between 80 and 200 mg/dL in dogs or 80 and 300 mg/dL in cats?
Are there any known clinical indications of hyper- or hypoglycemia?
These inquiries may help determine the best course of therapy.
calculating blood sugar
There are two alternatives:
It is possible to test the levels of blood insulin or glucose using blood samples. Two techniques for collecting blood samples to create glucose curves are as follows:
Your veterinarian takes a sample of venous blood from a nearby vein. A lab or in-clinic analyzer is used to detect plasma glucose concentrations.
A little amount of capillary blood from the pinna is collected and tested for glucose either at home or at a clinic.
The ratios of glucose in plasma and red blood cells from humans varies, hence glucometers should be calibrated especially for dogs and cats.
Readings from samples that were submitted to the laboratory may differ by as much as 15%.
The market is filled with a variety of glucometer models. The most popular test for cats and dogs is Alphatrak® since it tends to be the most accurate and needs the least amount of blood. To prevent any inconsistencies, use the same meter each time, but you may also use any of the other options that are offered.
Before picking up your cat, start by preparing all the tools you’ll need to test its blood; this should assist reduce your cat’s anxiousness. When it’s time for a reading, some individuals find it best to keep the cat in a particular space, like the bathroom, while others feel at ease testing anywhere the cat may be in the home. Whatever approach works for both you and your cat is OK.
Put your cat and yourself in a comfortable posture to take the blood sample after everything is prepared. The sample is typically taken from the outer ear of your cat. Most cats will accept being poked and moved about to get the sample since this is a low-pain region.
The quantity of sample needed for testing varies depending on the glucometer, but often it’s only a little drop. Applying a little pressure with a gauze square or something like to the place the sample was taken from can help the blood clot after you have collected the sample and while your meter is collecting the data. Record the reading in your cat’s logbook or log sheet as soon as your glucometer is finished reading the results (usually only a few seconds). Include the date and time the sample was taken, the reading, when your cat last ate, when his last insulin injection was given, and how much insulin he received.
Keeping tabs on feline diabetes
Once feline diabetes has been identified and insulin treatment has started, the cat should be watched throughout the next months to attain and maintain stability.
Insulin therapy’s major goals are to eradicate the clinical symptoms of diabetes while preventing hypoglycemia, preserve the cat’s overall health, and improve both the cat’s and the pet owner’s quality of life.
The cat’s blood glucose level will be monitored using an in-clinic blood glucose curve.
The owner should be consistent with their cat’s food schedule and insulin injections, as well as maintain a journal of any pertinent clinical symptoms and record any anomalies to aid in monitoring.
Once your cat has successfully stabilized, your doctor could conduct regular checkups every two to four months. Limiting long-term consequences will be made possible with careful monitoring and management.
The goal of therapy is to reduce diabetes’s clinical symptoms. Veterinarians work to prevent hypoglycemia and maintain blood glucose levels below the renal threshold, which is between 14 and 16 mmol/l. They do this by attempting to keep cats’ blood glucose levels mostly within the range of 6 to 16 mmol/l throughout the day. 1
When the clinical symptoms of diabetes mellitus lessen without causing hypoglycemia, the treatment has been effective (low blood glucose levels).
A typical physiological reaction to imminent hypoglycemia brought on by too much insulin is known as the Somogyi response. Rapid drops in blood sugar, known as hypoglycemia, drive hepatic glycogenolysis and the release of chemicals that cause diabetes, most notably adrenaline and glucagon. Within 12 hours following hypoglycemia, the body’s physiological reaction raises blood glucose levels, reduces hypoglycemia symptoms, and induces pronounced hyperglycemia. The blood glucose level may exceed 22 mmol/L the next morning. The Somogyi phenomenon may cause the release of chemicals that might cause diabetes, such as cortisol and growth hormone, which can lead to insulin resistance that can linger for up to 72 hours after the hypoglycemic episode.
How long does it take to get a diabetic cat under control?
Regular insulin injections, when administered correctly, may aid in preserving your cat’s blood glucose levels throughout the day. As your cat’s veterinarian modifies the insulin dosage your cat receives to control blood glucose levels, it may take a month or more to see improvements in the indications of diabetes.
How Is a Hospital Glucose Curve Performed?
Depending on the kind of insulin being administered, a glucose curve typically takes 12 to 24 hours.
In veterinary clinics, common instructions include the following:
Get ready for the day first. After you give your cat breakfast, you must take them early to the vet’s office. The insulin, syringe, and any meals or food your cat should consume while in the hospital must all be packed.
Feed your kitty normally.
Immediately after your cat eats, either bring your cat, together with any foods and treats, to the vet’s office OR administer the insulin and drop your pet off. Which option you choose depends on the veterinarian’s recommended course of action. When you deliver your cat:
check with the clinic the times and contents of your cat’s meals.
Verify the insulin dosage and timing that your cat received or should get.
When your cat arrives at the clinic, a blood sample will be taken right away.
If you haven’t previously given your cat’s insulin dosage, a technician will do so.
Depending on the kind and dose of the insulin administered, the staff will collect blood samples every 1 to 2 hours for 12 to 24 hours.
The blood test results will be noted and analyzed.
You will take your cat home at the conclusion of the curve period and feed them and/or provide their insulin dosage following your veterinarian’s instructions.
The clinic may draw blood from the patient’s leg, ear, or by inserting an IV catheter. Your veterinarian will decide on the best course of action based on your cat’s general health, insulin response, and temperament.